Volume 2 Issue 1, June 2023, pp. 77-94

This article summarizes the findings and policy recommendations from the C40 Cities research “The Cost of Fossil Gas: The Health, Economic and Environmental Implications for Cities.” Unlike what has been commonly promoted, the research evidences that fossil gas is not green or clean. It is not compatible with 1.5°C-compliant climate scenarios, and its combustion in power plants, buildings, and industry in and around C40 cities results in nearly as many premature deaths per capita as coal plants. Furthermore, fossil gas is no longer a good investment from an economic perspective. However, based on national expansion plans, fossil gas use is likely to grow by 86% in and around C40 cities by 2035, while it should decrease by 30% in a 1.5°C pathway. Based on global transition pathway modelling the overall steer is clear; governments should avoid expanding fossil gas consumption for electricity generation, new buildings and new industrial uses and avoid replacing existing fossil gas appliances with new ones. Specific policy recommendations are provided across five categories: phase out fossil gas wherever possible, reduce energy demand, prepare for the transition, accelerate renewables, and ensure a just and equitable transition. These recommendations aim to support a swift fossil gas phase-out in diverse urban contexts, taking into account varying city powers and gas use profiles.

Policy Guideline Details: Policy guidelines provide a concise, actionable summary of peer-reviewed research or robust grey literature that the authors have previously published. This policy guideline summarizes the findings and policy recommendations from the C40 Cities research “The Cost of Fossil Gas: The Health, Economic and Environmental Implications for Cities.”

SUMMARY FOR POLICYMAKERS
  • Fossil gas is not green and is incompatible with 1.5°C targets. Current national pledges are insufficient for a 1.5°C scenario, and expansion plans will exacerbate this, further increasing gas use by 86% by 2035, when it needs to decline by 30%.

  • Fossil gas is not clean; its use in power plants, buildings, and industry results in nearly as many premature deaths per capita as coal-fired power plants.

  • Transitioning away from fossil gas can reduce consumer energy costs and risk. Renewable energy prices are lower and less volatile than fossil gas. Solar and wind cost less in 95 out of 96 C40 cities’ countries.

  • Clean energy creates more jobs and is an opportunity for a just transition. Investing in residential retrofit and solar PV generates six times as many jobs as fossil gas power plants.

  • Cities account for two-thirds of global primary energy use and are already leading a clean energy transition.

  • Where more polluting fossil fuels are used, fossil gas can have a role to play in the near-term; however, fossil gas consumption should be limited due to its serious health impacts, methane leaks, and risk of lock-in and stranded assets.

This article is a summary for urban policymakers and municipal officials based on the recent C40 Cities research on the health, economic, and environmental implications of fossil gas for cities (C40, 2022).1 The term fossil gas is used instead of natural gas to emphasize that it is a fossil fuel and counter misinterpretation and/or misinformation that gas is a natural and clean source of energy. Building upon 1.5°C-compliant pathways developed for C40 cities, which are incompatible with fossil gas, this article outlines policy and implementation recommendations to accelerate a clean energy transition away from this fossil fuel.

Fossil gas, often touted as a clean alternative to coal, results in significant air pollution and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and has harmful social, economic, and environmental impacts. Fossil gas accounts for around a quarter of global energy supply and a fifth of carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions from energy (International Energy Agency [IEA], 2022). It consists largely of methane, a potent greenhouse gas, and the climate advantage of fossil gas over coal is negated at even small leakage rates (3.2%–3.4%) (Kemfert et al. 2022). Studies estimate methane leakage rates of up to 17% across fossil gas supply chain (Caulton et al., 2014). Fossil gas is, therefore, a key part of the world’s fossil fuel problem.

Unfortunately, the international community seems to be opening the door for further expansion of fossil gas use. For example, the European Union (EU) taxonomy for green energy (European Commission, n.d.) and the final text of the 27th Conference of the Parties to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (COP27) (United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change [UNFCCC], n.d.), provide openings for further investments in fuels that can be considered cleaner as a part of energy transition strategies. Such policy pronouncements may encourage an expansion of fossil gas, despite promises to end international funding for fossil fuels (UNFCCC, 2021) and a growing body of evidence on how fossil gas drives growth in global GHG emissions (Brauers, 2022; IEA, 2021).

Cities can play a central role in a shift away from fossil gas since urban areas are key gas consumers. In China, for instance, urban gas’s share of total consumption grew from 41.7% to 53.9% between 2006 and 2017 (Li et al., 2022). In the United States, 90% of revenue from the sale of fossil gas comes from the buildings sector, with residential gas sales accounting for 64% of total revenue (American Gas Association, 2023). In the EU the residential sector is the biggest gas consumer, accounting for 40% of gas demand (European Union Agency for the Cooperation of Energy Regulators [ACER], n.d.). As such, switching urban dwellings away from fossil gas would be transformative.

The research from C40 Cities supports urban energy transition by showing that fossil gas cannot be considered a green or clean fuel, contrary to the claims of fossil gas advocates, such as the International Gas Union (Influence Map, n.d.). The research, which was developed together with the Centre for Research on Energy and Clean Air (CREA) and the University of Maryland’s Center for Global Sustainability, models the climate and health burden of fossil gas use across electricity, buildings (heating and cooking), and industry in 96 cities around the world. The conclusion is that fossil gas is not compatible with city or national 1.5°C-compliant climate scenarios and that the combustion of fossil gas results in severe health impacts and economic burdens for city residents and governments across the globe (C40 Cities, 2022).

The research analyses the current, short-term (2030) and long-term (2050) impacts of fossil gas use for GHG and air pollutants emissions, as well as the health and economic implications of fossil gas use. The GHG emissions analysis comprises both downstream and upstream emissions. Methane fugitive emissions occur from fossil gas fields to the consumption point; the research accounts for leaks along fossil gas transmission lines and those associated with gas production.2

Two scenarios are modelled: the “current pledges scenario,” based on countries’ existing unconditional National Determined Contributions (NDC) pledges and long-term net zero targets and the “1.5°C scenario,” which includes regional net zero targets on three different timelines, based on existing literature of fair share approaches and equity principles (Pan et al., 2017; Robiou du Pont et al., 2017).3 An additional simplified scenario, the “expansion scenario,” assesses the impact of currently planned fossil gas expansions (Global Entrepreneurship Monitor [GEM], 2022a; GEM, 2022b).

The health impacts were estimated by modelling fossil gas related air pollutants (specifically NOx emissions, which influence ground-level NO2, ozone, and PM2.5), using a global chemistry-transport model (GEOS-Chem). This was then combined with well-established concentration-response functions to relate pollutants concentration to mortality and morbidity risks.

The socio-economic impacts were illustrated using job multipliers (C40 Cities, 2020a), the Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE),4 historical gas prices,5 and economic losses associated with health impacts were estimated based on fossil gas-induced disability,6 emergency room visits for asthma,7 premature death,8 preterm birth,9 and increased work absences10 across C40 cities.

Policy recommendations were drawn from desk-based research, consultation with C40 staff working across the city networks and three detailed city use cases.

The analysis does not include the transport sector nor indoor air pollution likely underestimating the consequences of fossil gas GHG emissions and air pollution.11 For instance, gas stoves emit various harmful pollutants, including nitrogen dioxide and carbon monoxide, and peak indoor air pollution from gas stoves can reach levels that would be illegal outdoors (RMI et al., 2020). The International Council on Clean Transportation found that in Europe natural gas trucks and buses provide marginal GHG reductions compared to diesel (International Council on Clean Transportation [ICCT], 2023), while a study built upon on-road tests commissioned by the Netherlands government indicated that the latest LNG trucks emit higher NOx pollution compared to the latest diesel trucks (Transport & Environment, 2019).

Climate impact

By modelling GHG emissions based on current national climate pledges and comparing these with the emissions cuts required to keep global warming within 1.5°C of pre-industrialized levels, the research evidences a gap of 6.1 GtCO2e in 2035 and 19.5 GtCO2e by 2050. Across the C40 network, fossil gas use in electricity, buildings, and industry is responsible for 6% of this emissions gap to 2035, growing to 10% of the gap by 2050.

While a 1.5°C scenario requires a 30% decrease in gas consumption within and around C40 cities by 2035, announced gas expansion will add 86% to gas-use capacity, as illustrated in Figure 1. The planned expansion would mean 323 MtCO2e more GHG emissions from gas in 2035 than under a 1.5°C-compliant scenario. That is equivalent to 33% of C40 cities’ total 1.5°C-compliant carbon budget for that year.

Figure 1: GHG emissions gap between current pledges and 1.5°C scenario, and the impact of announced gas expansion. GHG = greenhouse gas. Source: C40 Cities

Across the C40 network, fossil gas is responsible for, on average, 8% of NOx and 2% of PM2.5 concentrations. Of this, electricity contributes 42% of fossil gas-related NOx emissions and 37% of PM2.5, industry contributes 35% of NOx and 32% of PM2.5, and buildings contribute 19% of NOx and 22% of PM2.5.

Fossil gas use for electricity generation, heating, and cooking in buildings as well as industry contributed almost as much as coal power plants to premature deaths in C40 cities in 2020.12 It accounted for 35,987 premature deaths, 40,327 new cases of asthma in children and 3,317 preterm births in that year (see Figure 2).

Figure 2: The health consequences of fossil gas-based air pollution in C40 cities, 2020. Source: C40 Cities

Under the current pledges scenario, gas-induced cumulative health impacts add to 998,537 premature deaths, 685,713 new childhood asthma cases, 63,855 preterm births, and 579,467 years with disability by 2035 in C40 cities. By contrast, a swift, clean energy transition away from fossil gas in line with a 1.5°C-compliant climate scenario could avoid as many as 217,045 premature deaths, 198,478 new cases of asthma in children, 17,499 preterm births, and 127,419 years lived with disability by 2035. The impact reduction would be greater by the mid-century, when 776,190 premature deaths could be avoided. However, if current gas expansion plans are realized, these will lead to even greater health burdens across cities in comparison to the current pledges scenario. As previously mentioned, these figures are likely an underestimate of health impacts since indoor air pollution from fossil gas and ambient air pollution from fossil gas use in the transportation sector have not been modelled.

In addition to fossil gas consumption’s negative climate and air quality impacts, the economic arguments for gas expansion do not stack up. LCOE data evidences that new renewable electricity-generating capacity already costs less than generating electricity from fossil gas in almost every country, as illustrated in Figure 3. Furthermore, renewable electricity is on course to be cheaper than gas globally within the next few years (Hodges, 2020).

Figure 3: The cheapest sources of new-build bulk generation, 2022 Source: Bloomberg NEF

Renewable energy prices are also more stable than gas prices, which have proven to be volatile over time, and highly volatile so far during the 2020s (BP/Our World in Data, 2022), as shown in Figure 4.

Figure 4: Global fossil gas prices, USD per million British thermal unit, 1984–2021. OECD = Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development; CIF = Children’s Investment Fund Foundation; TTF = Title Transfer Facility; DA = Day Ahead; NBP = National Balancing Point. Source: Statistical Review of World Energy—BP/Our World in Data (2022).

Moreover, investing in fossil gas infrastructure creates fewer jobs than equivalent spending on energy efficiency and renewable energy. Investing USD 1 million in building energy efficiency combined with distributed solar PV generates six times as many jobs as an equivalent investment in fossil gas plants. Figure 5 compares the employment potential of investing in fossil fuels, renewable energy, and retrofits. In terms of access to new green jobs, women already have a stronger presence in the renewable energy sector than in fossil energy (32% versus 22%). However, to ensure quality of jobs and a just transition, regulation, participatory processes, and collective bargain are needed to ensure decent wages, and training and reskilling programmes are crucial.

Figure 5: Number of jobs per million USD invested. Source: C40 Cities

The research outlines policy and implementation recommendations on how cities can realize and/or accelerate the clean energy transition, accomplishing a massive fossil gas use reduction in line with the modelled 1.5°C scenario. Figure 6 presents the reductions required across sectors.

Figure 6: The 1.5°C-compliant scenario fossil gas use reductions. Source: C40 Cities

The overall clear steer is to avoid expanding fossil gas consumption for electricity generation, new buildings, and new industrial uses and avert replacing existing fossil gas appliances at the end of life with new ones.

More specific recommendations are outlined here across five categories: phase out fossil gas wherever possible, reduce energy demand, prepare for the transition, accelerate renewables, and ensure a just and equitable transition.

Specific actions to implement these recommendations depend on fossil gas and other fossil fuels use across sectors and populations, cities regulatory power, and policies in place. Moreover, the pace of fossil gas phase-out recommended for cities in different regions varies according to a fair share approach, which accounts for responsibility and capacity to act. In fact, the research transition pathways allow a slight increase in fossil gas use in some mid- and low-income countries until the late 2030s, within an overall global decline. However, clean energy options should be implemented wherever possible. Besides the related health burden and economic costs, new investments in fossil gas risk locking in emissions (Sato & Schumer, 2021) and generating stranded assets accompanied by high debts (Semieniuk et al., 2022).

Phase out fossil gas

Close down gas infrastructure and ban fossil gas wherever cities have powers and ownership for that. Adopt legislation and regulation instruments to outlaw fossil gas use, for instance, banning gas in new buildings, cutting incentives, and subsidies to fossil fuels and prohibiting advertising of those.

  • Example: With a plan to phase out gas by 2040, Zurich is, sequentially, shutting down the fossil gas supply network for district heating in neighborhoods across the city (Frost, n.d.).

  • Example: The Los Angeles Department of Water and Power will phase out three coastal fossil gas power plants by 2029; they account for 38% of the city’s natural gas portfolio (NS Energy, 2019).

Divest from fossil gas. Investments can be driven to clean energy and climate solutions, avoiding GHG emissions, health burdens and economic losses, while creating green jobs and enhancing energy access and affordability.

  • Example: Oslo decided to include climate risk analysis in investment decisions and established the goal to reduce the carbon footprint of its equities portfolio by 40% by 2030 (C40, 2020c).

  • Example: 18 cities from Latin America to Oceania have publicly committed to divest city assets from fossil fuels and increase investments in climate solutions by taking part in the “Divesting from Fossil Fuels, Investing in a Sustainable Future Accelerator” (C40, n.d.).

Adopt clean energy and net zero targets encompassing all sectors to send a clear signal for stakeholders and consumers.

  • Example: Cities around the world have joined global campaigns, such as Cities Race to Zero (C40, 2020b), and national or regional initiatives like 100% Clean Power led by the Sierra Club in the United States (Sierra Club, n.d).

Reduce energy demand

Support building retrofit programmes and adopt energy efficiency standards to enhance energy efficiency and reduce overall energy demand.

  • Example: Through its building retrofit accelerator, Toronto is providing expert services and collaborating with building owners, utilities, residents, and consultancies to ensure a shared objective and maximize the social, health, climate, and economic benefits from the interventions (The Atmospheric Fund [TAF], n.d.).

A combination of requiring larger commercial buildings to meet strict energy efficiency and emissions standards with subsidies to social housing and low-income households is recommended to incorporate equity concerns.

  • Example: Through the Local Law 97, New York City requires buildings over 25,000 square feet to meet strict energy efficiency standards, while demanding less stringent emissions cuts from affordable housing and providing support for their owners and renters (NYC Sustainable Buildings, n.d.).

Increase energy security and manage supply and demand by calibrating energy tariffs to discourage consumption at peak hours and offering lower rates when renewable power is abundant.

  • Example: Cape Town improved energy security by promoting rooftop solar and small wind turbines for businesses and residents. The excess is sold to the grid (C40 Cities, 2019)

Create distributed battery systems connected to the grid to reduce the risk of blackouts during emergency events or peak demand hours.

  • Example: A partnership between California and Tesla launched a virtual power plant programme that will pay Powerwall owners to send extra electricity to the grid during emergency or energy shortages events. The distributed battery system can replace gas-fired power plants that typically come online whenever power demand starts to outpace supply (The Verge, 2022).

Introduce energy use restrictions, starting with municipal buildings by turning off lights, heating, and cooling devices when they are not essential. Set indoor temperature parameters (limiting cooling in the summer and heating in the winter) for both private and public buildings and provide economic incentives to encourage behaviour change.

  • Example: Paris has introduced fines for businesses that leave doors open when the air conditioning or heating is on (News in France, n.d).

Prepare for the transition

Increase municipal powers over the energy system, critical infrastructure for urban citizens and local economy can be re-municipalized or created by municipalities in collaboration with energy companies.

  • Example: At least 369 cases of re-municipalization of critical energy infrastructure had been recorded as of late 2020 showing that it is possible and is getting global traction (RN21, 2021).

Actively participate in or influence energy regulation and policy processes relating to the electricity sector, using formal or informal approaches, where other levels of governments have overall responsibility for setting these rules.

  • Example: Local governments in eastern United States, who are all served by the same regional electricity market, formed the PJM Cities and Communities Coalition to drive decarbonization at the wholesale electricity market level (World Resources Institute [WRI], n.d.).

Design clear energy roadmaps and infrastructure strategies to understand the building blocks for a clean energy transition away from gas (such as renewables capacity, investments needed, and alternative uses for the existing fossil gas infrastructure).

  • Example: London produced the London Heat Map tracking heat demand and supply across the city to support district heating deployment as part of its goal to generate 25% of its energy supply from decentralized sources by 2030 (Mayor of London, n.d.).

Accelerate renewables and decarbonize

Use municipal demand to drive the transition and facilitate power purchase agreements convening large energy users for jointly procure renewable energy, leading to demand surge.

  • Example: Chicago signed a USD 422.2 million agreement with Constellation Energy to provide renewable energy to municipal buildings aiming at meeting its goal of reducing GHG emissions 62% by 2040 (Spielman, 2022).

  • Example: Melbourne has facilitated power purchase agreements for businesses across the city to increase the demand for renewable electricity. The Melbourne Renewable Energy Project brought together seven large energy users to jointly procure 110 GWh of renewable electricity per year over 10 years (City of Melbourne, n.d.).

Create new market mechanisms, such as feed-in tariffs, auctions, and incentives, to drive utility and distributed renewable energy.

  • Example: Municipal-level feed-in tariffs are used in a number of cities, such as Rajkot and Recoleta (REN21, 2021).

  • Example: Virtual net-metering is allowing residents and businesses in Delhi to invest in solar energy through collectively owned systems that balance consumption and production by offering credits on electricity bills (Vikramsolar, 2019).

Decarbonize cooling and heating systems by fostering solar-thermal plants and systems and replacing standard air-cooling systems with low-carbon alternatives.

  • Example: Barcelona implemented a solar-thermal ordinance, requiring new buildings with large hot water demand, and existing ones undergoing major renovations, to supply 60% or more of their hot water from solar-thermal collectors (Energia Barcelona, n.d.).

Ensure a just and equitable transition

Establish inclusive and transparent social dialogue and partnerships with relevant stakeholders, including informal-sector workers, to understand their needs and interests, as well as their conditions for engaging in participatory processes.

  • Example: South African cities established a dialogue with a range of stakeholders, including national government and unions, on policy and actions needed for a just transition (C40 Cities, 2021).

Creating inclusive and participatory governance stances where those most impacted by the energy transition take part in policy framing is recommended to enable an equal voice in decision-making processes.

  • Example: Seattle’s Green New Deal Oversight Board, which advises the mayor and City Council on the city’s Green New Deal policies, is formed by a diverse group of stakeholders, from climate specialists to labour unions (Seattle, n.d.).

Maximize job creation and invest in upskilling and reskilling programmes to ensure that workers from the fossil fuel sector can access high quality new job opportunities in the renewable and energy efficiency field.

  • Example: London has committed to creating 1,000 new skilled jobs from the first GBP 10 million (USD 11.2 million) Green New Deal fund, with a focus on low-income residents and black, Asian and minority ethnic and female-led entrepreneurs (Mayor of London, 2020).

Implement a clean energy transition that improves energy access, and/or reduces costs, through ambitious electrification plans including shared renewable generation systems in low-income communities and energy efficiency measures in homes experiencing energy poverty.

  • Example: In Rio de Janeiro a shared solar power-generation system was installed in a low-income community and dozens of local electricians and solar installers were trained in the process (Revolusolar, n.d.).

The research use cases demonstrate that decisions made today that restrict current and future gas usage will make the transition from fossil gas to clean energy manageable. Still, a swift transition will not be easy for cities. Decarbonizing of buildings, electricity generation, and industrial production will all require investment, though many of these costs apply to fossil gas energy options as well. Furthermore, investments in infrastructure to support a clean energy transition have wider benefits, such as reducing air pollution, improving health outcomes, boosting energy security, and tackling energy poverty.

This research adds to the growing evidence showing that, contrary to the gas lobby claims, fossil gas is neither green nor clean; fossil gas does not have a place in a just transition to 1.5°C. Instead of looking at gas as an alternative to higher impactful fossil fuels, public and private stakeholders should focus on accelerating the transition to clean energy. Cities are already acting and leading on this, showing where the future of energy lies.

The edges of the research open up opportunities for upcoming complementary studies. Estimating the stranded assets generated by gas expansion plans in the face of current policy and pledges, modelling the air pollution from fossil gas use in transport and its consequences, as well as the health burden from indoor gas-related pollution are avenues for future research.

Acknowledgements

This article was developed based on the C40 Cities’ research “The Cost of Fossil Gas: The Health, Economic and Environmental Implications for Cities,” which was conceptualized and reviewed by Rachel Huxley, Director of Knowledge and Research at C40 Cities. Rachel Huxley reviewed and edited this paper.

The research was technically supported by the following organizations: Buro Happold, Centre for Research on Energy and CleanAir (CREA), and University of Maryland.

The authors, while taking full responsibility for this article, would like to acknowledge the following individuals who were involved in the original research: Rachel Huxley, Honorine van den Broek d’Obrenan, Lauren Sellers, and Felipe Gaudereto.

The authors have nothing to disclose.

Conceptualization: M Nicolletti and M Berensson

Methodology: M Nicolletti, M Berensson, L Myllyvirta, and R Cui

Formal Analysis: M Nicolletti and M Berensson

Investigation: M Nicolletti

Data Curation: M Nicolletti, M Berensson, L Myllyvirta, and R Cui

Writing—Original Draft: M Nicolletti

Writing—Review & Editing: M Berensson

Funding Acquisition: M Berensson

This research received funding from Wellcome, through the grant “The health, economic and environmental implications of natural gas.”

Notes

1. “The cost of fossil gas: The health, economic and environmental implications for cities” research full report is available at https://www.c40knowledgehub.org/s/article/The-cost-of-fossil-gas-The-health-economic-and-environmental-implications-for-cities.

2. The methane fugitive emissions were taken from the Community Emissions Data System (CEDS). To estimate the emissions associated with fossil gas production in different countries, a methane emission factor was derived from the BP Statistical Review of World Energy’s gas production data.

3. It is worth highlighting that although the 1.5°C scenario research represents one pathway to achieve the global 1.5°C goal, other trajectories could be possible. This scenario draws upon assumptions that include limited temperature overshooting, limited CCS, limited biomass with CCS (for air quality reasons), limited nuclear sources, minimized fossil fuels, maximized renewables (solar and wind), and high electrification.

4. LCOE fossil gas and renewables data was shared by Bloomberg NEF.

5. Extracted from the Statistical Review of World Energy (2022).

6. Estimated based on a “disability weight” attributed for diabetes, chronic respiratory diseases, and stroke, used to compare the costs of different illnesses. The economic valuation of disability used by the United Kingdom environmental regulator DEFRA (Birchby et al., 2019) was adjusted by GNI PPP for other countries.

7. Calculated based on costs reported by Brandt et al. (2012) in California, with the cost per visit for each other country adjusted to GDP at PPP.

8. Assessed based on the valuation of the risk of death from air pollution on a large meta-analysis of the value of statistical life derived from labor market data (Viscusi & Masterman, 2017). Child deaths are valued at twice the value of adult deaths (OECD, 2012).

9. It is based on Trasande et al. (2016) study that estimated the economic cost of USD 300,000 per premature birth considering the increased risk of many health and development issues throughout the baby’s life. This valuation was adjusted using GDP at PPP for each country.

10. Sick days were quantified based on the World Health Organization (2013) recommendations. Sick leaves economic cost was estimated at EUR 130 per day in the European Union (EEA, 2014). This value was adjusted based on GDP at PPP.

11. The detailed research methodology, including the description of the three modelled scenarios, is available at https://c40.my.salesforce.com/sfc/p/36000001Enhz/a/1Q000000ggOX/A7TsBxUme95P49kIeHh2eGMQxlo0RM6uJS4umzwHa0c.

12. The analysis builds upon air quality and health impacts modelling undertaken in this research and in the “Coal-free cities” research (C40 Cities, 2021), which shows that, across C40 cities, population-weighted premature deaths from coal-generated electricity in 2020 were 4.81 per 100,000, while the corresponding figure for fossil gas consumption was 4.06 per 100,000.

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